Cultural and Creative Arts Series 1 (Cultural and Creative Arts)
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The section following the introduction presents summary, state of the art statements regarding the creative arts in general and specific modalities in particular. References to research studies and resource materials in this section are found in listings immediately following the state of the art section and not in extensive resource listings comprising the bulk of this Guide.
Arts and crafts. Selected references. Index of printed references. Audiovisual materials.
Resource persons. Associations and organizations. Craft supplies. Jewelry craft.
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Leather craft. Points out that, with a turnover of EUR Points out that CCIs guarantee not only cultural diversity, but also media pluralism and the economic vitality of the European Union;. Notes that CCIs are of strategic importance for economic development and quality job creation in the EU;. Considers, consequently, that the protection of right holders within the legislative frameworks of copyright and intellectual property is necessary in a manner that recognises values and stimulates innovation, creativity, investment and the production of content, whilst being adaptable to continuous technological developments and future digital platforms;.
Considers that the digital environment offers new opportunities for the creation and production of cultural and creative works, and for their distribution, exploitation and accessibility to a wider public, independently of physical and geographical constraints, at times at a lower cost and with lower barriers to entry; notes, however, that in an increasingly connected and digitised forum, authors and creators with limited resources might be financially disadvantaged when operating in a larger competitive area;.
How to convince the creative investor?
Considers that digital technology has also brought about opportunities for the creation of different types of artistic work or practices for which that digital technology is also an essential part of the creative process;. Stresses that continuous digital innovation challenges the cultural and creative industries to rethink and reshape their business models; expresses its concern that in most current business models the economic value of content, which needs to be redefined, occurs at various points of the value chain, but this may be displaced towards the end of the value chain thereby adding complexity to the system through which the creative community draws value from content, including a fair remuneration for authors and creators; notes, at the same time, that the creative community is facing losses resulting also from copyright infringements such as piracy, as well as from difficulties arising from a constantly changing online environment and challenges to existing business models;.
Stresses the importance of the new digital environment for the development of the cultural and creative industries in creating greater visibility for creators and enabling them to be in permanent contact with their audience and consumers; considers, therefore, that the establishment of any legal framework defining the digitalisation of cultural and creative industries should take place after a broad consultation of all the actors involved in the value chain;.
Considers that digital platforms are a means of providing wider access to cultural and creative works and that consideration must be given to how this process can function with more legal certainty and respect for right holders;. Calls on the Commission to address the issue of value transfer in connection with the ongoing copyright debate;. Calls on the Commission to develop a European cultural strategy in the digital era in line with all EU policies, including tax policy;.
Recalls the outcome of the public consultation launched by the Commission on a regulatory environment for platforms and online intermediaries; highlights the fact that participants recognise the benefits of online platforms in making creative content more accessible and communication easier, but at the same time question the lack of transparency and legal certainty in this process as regards compliance with copyright;.
Considers that adequate and effective protection of copyright and related rights is essential to ensure that creators are fairly remunerated. Date adopted. Substitutes under Rule 2 present for the final vote. Document stages in plenary. PE Whereas, even though the development of digital technology and infrastructure is a European policy priority, the dissemination of cultural and creative goods and services online through cultural institutions still needs to be improved; AK.
Calls on the Commission to develop a comprehensive, coherent and long-term industrial policy framework for the CCS, and on the EU to include the development, effective promotion and protection and adequate funding of CCIs in its strategic goals and overall priorities, in order to boost their competitiveness and enable them to fulfil their potential in terms of creating quality jobs and growth; 2. Stresses that the need for setting up statistical data on cultural and creative industries contributes also to the cultural policy debate, and encourages the Commission and Eurostat, in their endeavour to regularly analyse and measure the impact of cultural policies on the CCS as a whole, to include the CCS in their yearly statistics, based on an analysis of the value and spillovers created by the CCIs in the digital age and to publish a sectoral biennial report on the development of CCIs in Europe; highlights, in this context, the need to reinforce the role of Eurostat and of the Joint Research Centre; Framework conditions and fostering innovation 5.
Stresses that digital technology and infrastructure rely on the content provided by creators; notes that direct access to global audiences has led to new forms of artistic and creative content; calls, therefore, on the Commission, balancing the needs of all relevant actors, to establish an appropriate legal framework, including copyright, for the value chain in the digital age, which takes into account the specificities of the sector, enables further innovation, promotes transparent contractual relationships and leads to the establishment of the right to fair remuneration and legal protection for authors, creators and all parties involved in the creative process and their works, thus ensuring a thriving digital economy; 7.
Stresses the need to work together and the importance of constantly sharing knowledge and best practice between Member States seeking to support and stimulate the creative industry, and promote creativity and productivity at all levels; 8. Highlights the fact that research into right holders and non-transparent rules on copyright represent administrative burdens entailing high costs and considerable effort, especially for SMEs working on a cross-border basis; recommends, therefore, that a common pan-European database be established, with all available information on right holders for each sector in order to facilitate rights clearance; Underlines the need to monitor and strengthen the application of existing enforcement rules across the EU; recommends considering the introduction of tougher sanctions and the promotion of a system of guarantees on traceability as a deterrent for counterfeiters — particularly large-scale commercial ones — as well as increasing the damages and compensation awarded to right holders; calls for the EU and the Member States to launch awareness-raising campaigns against piracy and counterfeiting, and to identify trends and target them more effectively, while encouraging right-holders and service providers to ensure that there are easy routes to accessing legal content in order to discourage piracy; stresses, finally, the need to involve all digital actors in the fight against online counterfeiting; Calls on the Commission to propose effective measures to fight online piracy, in particular to ensure that online services which host content apply effective means in order to remove unlicensed content from their services and to take action to prevent this content, once removed, from reappearing; Considers that it is essential to overcome silo thinking in traditional policy areas and to promote cultural and creative spillovers; Considers it essential for the EU and its Member States to maintain the possibility of preserving and developing their cultural and audiovisual policies, and to do so in the context of their existing laws, standards and agreements, including the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions; calls, therefore, for the exclusion of cultural and audiovisual services, including those provided online, to be clearly stated in agreements between the Union and third countries; emphasises, in this context, the need to keep cultural and audiovisual services outside the scope of the negotiating mandate for general free trade agreements, while pointing out that cultural and creative works have a dual and intrinsic value; Calls on the Commission to promote and support the creation, improvement and expansion of infrastructure which is key to supporting creative industries in Europe, particularly ensuring the expansion of high-speed broadband to rural and remote areas; Recognises that many cities and regions across Europe have developed substantial plans for their local CCIs; calls on the Commission to draw on best practice from these strategies; Calls on the Commission and the Member States to consider the European Year of Cultural Heritage as a major opportunity to enhance European excellence in CCIs and to stress the need for appropriate programming and financing; Calls for the European External Action Service to harness the potential of cultural diplomacy by promoting and improving the competitive strength of the European CCS; Digitisation of the cultural and creative industries Considers that digital platforms are a means of providing wider access to cultural and creative works and offer great opportunities for the CCS to develop new business models; highlights the fact that consideration should be given to how this process can function with more legal certainty and respect for right holders; underlines the importance of transparency and of ensuring a fair level playing field; considers in this regard that protection of right holders within the copyright and intellectual property framework is necessary in order to ensure recognition of values and stimulation of innovation, creativity, investment and production of content; Stresses that digitisation and media convergence create new opportunities for access, distribution and promotion of European works and emphasises the importance of guaranteeing funding for the digitisation, preservation and online availability of European cultural heritage; Working conditions in the cultural and creative sector Calls on the Member States to develop or implement a legal and institutional framework for creative artistic activity through the adoption or application of a number of coherent and comprehensive measures with respect to contracts, means of collective representation, social security, sickness insurance, direct and indirect taxation and compliance with European rules, in order to improve the mobility of artists across the EU; Stresses that the creative drive is present in every human being and that creative skills should be developed from an early age in order to lay the foundations for the continuous renewal of creative talents; notes nevertheless that these skills can be encouraged at all stages in life, notably through accessible lifelong learning programmes; encourages the Member States to foster greater knowledge of the CCIs in education and training programmes, to develop the teaching of media literacy and digital skills and to improve their training, learning and qualification systems, enabling students of all ages to acquire comprehensive training in creative arts disciplines; Draws attention to the lack of cross-cutting — and in particular entrepreneurial — skills among graduates in cultural and arts disciplines, as well as to their insufficient knowledge of copyright laws and the means of protecting such rights; considers it important, therefore, to encourage the Members States and educational institutions to address this gap by adjusting teaching programmes, in order to provide continuous professional training and better integrate creative and entrepreneurial education and thus strengthen the business, financial, marketing and management skills of creative entrepreneurs; Calls on the Member States to increase support for teachers to enable them to develop the creative and innovative capabilities of young people, by modernising teaching processes and by including media literacy, art, music, theatre and film in education and training programmes; urges the Member States to develop knowledge of cultural heritage, artistic practices and expressions, and soft skills geared to creativity and innovation; calls also on the Member States to support cooperation between schools, with a view to exchanging the most effective methods and practices as regards stimulating creativity and innovation, thus helping people to value creative industries products and services; Recalls that partnerships with education can also contribute to a stimulating learning environment and to the integration of disadvantaged and marginalised communities, and offer opportunities for people in deprived neighbourhoods; Highlights the potential of CCIs regarding youth employment and reindustrialisation and in particular the growing opportunities in the cultural and creative sector created by the digital environment for young people; calls on the Commission and the Member States to include the CCIs in the Youth Employment Initiative and to provide funds to facilitate careers, entrepreneurship and training in this sector by creating apprenticeship schemes, and facilitating mobility and exchange through mentorship and traineeship programmes; calls for a more effective use to be made of the resources provided for under the Youth Guarantee scheme; Recalls that one of the main challenges faced by the cultural heritage sector is the gradual extinction of traditional skills and crafts; calls on the Commission and the Member States to secure the preservation of heritage, cultural and linguistic diversity, traditional skills and European national, regional and local savoir-faire and to safeguard and promote the craft trades linked to the CCS, encourage and facilitate transmission of know-how and place a stronger focus on vocational training and a highly skilled workforce in order to attract talent, including excellence in craftsmanship in the construction sector and in conservation and restoration work; underlines, to this end, that strong strategic links must be cultivated between cultural policy and the social and productive resources; Calls on the Commission to raise awareness about career opportunities in artisanal and manufacturing jobs linked to the CCS through awareness campaigns and policies promoting the transmission of knowledge in order to preserve craftsmanship and expert skills in these sectors; Encourages the Member States to promote cooperation between artistic schools, VET providers, universities and businesses in the CCS, including through artist residencies in business settings and educational establishments, in order to ensure a better match between the supply of skills and the demands of the labour market and boost the sector's competitive potential; recommends the development of work-learn trajectories such as dual education schemes; Recommends the design and adoption of policies aimed at increasing the level of cultural participation among EU citizens, which in many Member States is still critically low; stresses that this would lead to benefits both in terms of fostering more creative talents and securing a larger and stronger demand base for EU cultural and creative products; Underlines the huge potential of women as innovators and entrepreneurs and the important role they play in the cultural and creative industries; encourages the Member States to offer appropriate financial support and training and highlights the importance of networking and sharing best practices; Points out that the cultural and creative industries benefit considerably from public funding for culture, which also contributes significantly to cultural diversity in the European Union; urges the Commission and Member States therefore, within their respective spheres of competence, to continue a earmark an adequate share of their budgets for public funding for culture; Stresses the need to strengthen government policies in support of the CCS and improve culture budgets; points out that public funding has suffered severe budget cuts in the Member States, posing a serious threat to European cultural and creative work; Calls on the Commission to work on mainstreaming EU support for cultural and creative industries, including funding, through the adoption of an overarching and transversal EU strategy; stresses, however, the importance of being aware of the diverse nature of CCIs and, accordingly, of their specific sectoral needs in terms of funding and innovation environments, and therefore of specific implementation plans, such as a joint framework scheme between Horizon and Creative Europe; recognises the multiplier effect which EU funding has for CCIs, particularly in specific regions; Recognises the important role played by not-for-profit, cooperative and social enterprises in the CCIs and, therefore, calls for any distinction in EU structural and social funding, which could limit the eligibility of these structures, to be avoided; Notes that the mid-term review of the MFF and the implementation reports of EU programmes should be regarded as two interconnected parts of the same process; notes that, particularly in the case of Creative Europe, Horizon and the Structural Funds ERDF and ESF , the role and impact of CCIs on growth, employment and territorial cohesion should be specifically evaluated and further promoted; stresses that this process should provide a solid and coherent basis for the revision of the MFF and the future EU programme's architecture post ; Notes that the Guarantee Facility within Creative Europe is one of the ways to address the pressing need for accessing loan financing for innovative and sustainable projects in the CCS; recalls the delay in the launch of the Guarantee Facility; stresses the need to increase the budget of Creative Europe and the Guarantee Facility in order to effectively support European cultural and creative expressions, diversify the beneficiaries of funding, guarantee equal access to and improve participation of cultural operators from all Member States to the Guarantee Facility; Notes that the EFSI should help SMEs to overcome capital shortages and typically target projects with a higher risk profile than projects supported by EIB normal operations 22 ; notes that, as of September , funding had been granted only for a few projects in the CCS — which mainly consists of SMEs with a higher degree of risk — and in the education or training sector, and stresses that every effort should be made to improve their participation in the EFSI; Calls on the Commission, the Member States and the EIB to support mixed methods of funding, especially in the form of public-private partnerships, in order to address and rectify the lack of availability of equity finance for CCIs; Considers it necessary to improve the role which public investment banks play in the CCS by giving SMEs improved access to credit and helping enterprises to expand their market and export activities; Considers that in order to improve access to finance in the CCIs it is necessary to develop expertise in identifying and assessing the value of intangible assets, which could be used as collaterals; stresses the need to increase knowledge among financial investors and institutions regarding the specificities and different challenges of the CCIs, considered as presenting a higher degree of risk; welcomes, in thisconnection, the inclusion by the Commission of a training scheme for financial intermediaries within the Guarantee Facility of Creative Europe, as this may also improve the ability of CCIs to approach and convince external investors; considers it useful, nonetheless, to assert the success of this scheme and, pending a positive evaluation, to extend it to various policy areas; Calls, to this end, for the promotion of 'intellectual property asset protocols' facilitating the valuation of intellectual property rights IPRs , and invites the Commission and the Member States to adopt the necessary mechanisms in order to increase the bankability of IPRs and the recognition of their full value as assets; OJ C 13, OJ L , 1.
OJ L , OJ C 93, 9. OJ C E, Introduction Culture, art, creativity: this is the true image and asset of Europe in the world! Education and training Creativity, inspiration, imagination are based on culture and art in all its forms, and should be an integral part of education as well. Copyright and counterfeiting in the cultural and creative sector Copyright is to the cultural and creative sector, what patents are to industry and technology. CCIs: access to finance and EU funding Tailor-made solutions are needed specifically in the field of funding and financing: there are a number of sectors, within the cultural and creative industries, that should and could certainly benefit better from financial support and dedicated funds by the European Union to support their development and innovative output.
Conclusion The co-rapporteurs believe that CCIs have a key role in reindustrialising Europe, are a driver for growth and are in a strategic position to trigger innovative spillovers in other industrial sectors, such as tourism, retail, and digital technologies. COM COM final, page 6. Result of final vote.
Members present for the final vote. Substitutes present for the final vote. There is a tension at the heart of current debate on the value of culture. It is focused on the relations between culture and economics and the different trade-offs that are involved making calculations about the value of culture as a product as well as its modes of circulation and consumption.
The debate is not a new one by any means. At present, the dominant approach to valuing culture in the European Commission is to focus on its economic impact in terms of employment, turnover and business formation with a particular eye on the balance of international trade, a tendency enhanced by the continuing financial crisis. This is also the approach taken by many member states. Along with this there has been a growing focus on how culture can be measured, discussed below.
Although measurement has its uses, inevitably there is much that it fails to capture. Those working in the sector know the limitations of the prevalent approach but there is a political imperative — at every level — to comply with the demand to account for public expenditure on culture, as it is headline claims about the creative economy that carry greatest political weight.
In the past decade, as well evidenced by work undertaken for the EC and EP, there has been a drive to develop indicators to demonstrate the value of the cultural and creative industries CCIs. A landmark example is work undertaken for the Commission by the Brussels-based consultancy, KEA, which has continued to undertake numerous projects in a similar vein. Its Green Paper European Commission set out things that CCIs might do for economic development and rehearsed the conventional wisdom about their nature and role.
Betsy Lueke Creative Arts Center | Burbank, CA
While the creative policy turn has not produced uniformity of thinking inside the EU, it has impacted on how culture is thought about in policy-making circles. National differences persist about what to include and exclude, in line with the weight of the diverse institutional development of given states. Categorization of creative industries is linked to measurement, which is of growing importance for the global governance of the creative economy. The quest to measure is played out both at member state and EU levels, and indeed globally.
As we note below, the focus of these, arguably, has mutated. Presently, conventional evaluation dominates the field. Are there alternative ways of thinking about the role of culture in the EU? Can these acquire greater weight in the debate about the future of European culture? The current emphasis on the creative economy in policy thinking has led to the economization of culture.
Rather than subordinate culture to the economy, it may be seen as in a complementary and often antithetical relation to it. By contrast, creative economy thinking emphasises economic value at the expense of cultural value.